Volume 10 , Issue 3 , June 2021 , Pages: 156 - 165
Effects of a Customized Physical Activity Program on Community-Dwelling Older Men with Sarcopenia
Hyun a Choi, Nursing College, Sunlin University, Pohang, South Korea
Kyung Min Park, College of Nursing, Keimyung University, Daegu, South Korea
Kyoung Ja Moon, College of Nursing, Keimyung University, Daegu, South Korea
Received: Mar. 24, 2021;       Accepted: Apr. 8, 2021;       Published: Apr. 29, 2021
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajns.20211003.13        View        Downloads  
Sarcopenia is characterized by decreased muscle mass and muscular function related to aging and is a risk factor for geriatric illnesses. There is a need for physical activity programs appropriate for older men as most existing studies have focused on women. We aimed to develop and validate the effects of a customized physical activity program for male older adults with sarcopenia in South Korea. A non-equivalent control group pre-test and post-test design was used. The experimental group was provided with group education sessions and a customized physical activity program with individual intervention for 12 weeks. The control group was advised to continue their usual lifestyle and provided with education about sarcopenia, guidelines concerning physical activities, posters, and video clips after experiment completion. The groups differed significantly in self-efficacy, insulin-like growth factor-1, lower extremity endurance, and flexibility post-intervention. The customized physical activity program for male older adults with sarcopenia effectively improved participants’ health-related outcomes. The physical activity program developed in this study was effective in improving participants’ self-efficacy, insulin-like growth factor-1, and elasticity, and in alleviating decreases in lower limb endurance. Thus, it is necessary to systematically support such physical activity programs to help older adults address their sarcopenia.
Health-related Quality of Life, Intervention, Older Adults, Outcomes, South Korea
To cite this article
Hyun a Choi, Kyung Min Park, Kyoung Ja Moon, Effects of a Customized Physical Activity Program on Community-Dwelling Older Men with Sarcopenia, American Journal of Nursing Science . Vol. 10 , No. 3 , 2021 , pp. 156 - 165 . doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20211003.13
Copyright © 2021 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
[ 1 ]
Shaw, S. C., Dennison, E. M., & Cooper, C. (2017). Epidemiology of sarcopenia: Determinants throughout the lifecourse. Calcified Tissue International, 101, 229–247. doi: 10.1007/s00223-017-0277-0.
[ 2 ]
Kim, H. H., Kim, J. S., & Yu, J. O. (2014). Factors contributing to sarcopenia among community-dwelling older Korean adults. Journal of Korean Gerontological Nursing, 16 (2), 170–179. doi: 10.17079/jkgn.2014.16.2.170.
[ 3 ]
Brown, J. C., Harhay, M. O., & Harhay, M. N. (2016). Sarcopenia and mortality among a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 7 (3), 290–298. doi: 10.1002/jcsm.12073.
[ 4 ]
Patel, H. P., Syddall, H. E., Jameson, K., Robinson, S., Denison, H., Roberts, H. C., Edwards, M., Dennison, E., Cooper, C., & Sayer, A. A. (2013). Prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older people in the UK using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition: Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). Age and Ageing, 42 (3), 378–384. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afs197.
[ 5 ]
Kim, H., Hirano, H., Edahiro, A., Ohara, Y., Watanabe, Y., Kojima, N., Kim, M., Hosoi, E., Yoshida, Y., Yoshida, H., & Shinkai, S. (2016). Sarcopenia: Prevalence and associated factors based on different suggested definitions in community-dwelling older adults. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 16 (Suppl 1), 110–122. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12723.
[ 6 ]
Wu, I.-C., Lin, C.-C., Hsiung, C. A., Wang, C.-Y., Wu, C.-H., Chan, D.-C. D., Li, T. C., Lin, W. Y., Huang, K. C., Chen, C. Y., & Hsu, C.-C. (2014). Epidemiology of sarcopenia among community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan: A pooled analysis for a broader adoption of sarcopenia assessments. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 14 (S1), 52–60. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12193.
[ 7 ]
Tanimoto, Y., Watanabe, M., Sun, W., Hirota, C., Sugiura, Y., Kono, R., Saito, M., & Kono, K. (2012). Association between muscle mass and disability in performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in community-dwelling elderly in Japan. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54 (2), e230–e233. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2011.06.015.
[ 8 ]
Beaudart, C., Rizzoli, R., Bruyère, O., Reginster, J.-Y., & Biver, E. (2014). Sarcopenia: Burden and challenges for public health. Archives of Public Health, 72 (1), 45. doi: 10.1186/2049-3258-72-45.
[ 9 ]
Beaudart, C., Zaaria, M., Pasleau, F., Reginster, J.-Y., & Bruyère, O. (2017). Health outcomes of sarcopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 12 (1), e0169548. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169548.
[ 10 ]
Jung, H. W., Kim, S. W., Chin, H. J., Kim, C. H., & Kim, K. I. (2013). Skeletal muscle mass as a predictor of mortality in the elderly population. The Korean Journal of Medicine, 85 (2), 167–173. doi: 10.3904/kjm.2013.85.2.167.
[ 11 ]
Liu, P., Hao, Q., Hai, S., Wang, H., Cao, L., & Dong, B. (2017). Sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas, 103, 16–22. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.04.007.
[ 12 ]
Woo, N., & Kim, S. H. (2014). Sarcopenia influences fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. Geriatric Nursing, 35 (4), 279–282. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2014.03.001.
[ 13 ]
Yamada, M., Nishiguchi, S., Fukutani, N., Tanigawa, T., Yukutake, T., Kayama, H., Aoyama, T., & Arai, H. (2013). Prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14 (2), 911–915. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2013.08.015.
[ 14 ]
Mesquita, A. F., Cruz da Silva, E., Eickemberg, M., Carneiro Roriz, A. K., Barreto-Medeiros, J. M., & Barbosa Ramos, L. B. (2017). Factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 34 (2), 345–351. doi: 10.20960/nh.427.
[ 15 ]
Jang, I.-Y., Jung, H.-W., Lee, C. K., Yu, S. S., Lee, Y. S., & Lee, E. (2018). Comparisons of predictive values of sarcopenia with different muscle mass indices in Korean rural older adults: A longitudinal analysis of the Aging Study of PyeongChang Rural Area. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 13, 91–99. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S155619.
[ 16 ]
Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). National health statistics. Available online: (accessed 20 Oct 2019).
[ 17 ]
Park, M. J., Kim, S., Cho, E. H., Park, S. M., & Kang, H. J. (2013). A study on the development of a self-regulated exercise maintenance program for osteoporotic elderly women: Using intervention mapping protocol. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 33, 419–437.
[ 18 ]
Hong, J.-Y., & Cho, J.-H. (2015). Effects of combined exercise on the skeletal muscle mass index and balance scale of elderly women with sarcopenia. The Official Journal of the Korean Academy of Kinesiology, 17 (3), 17–24. doi: 10.15758/jkak.2015.17.3.17.
[ 19 ]
Jung, W. S., & Lee, M. K. (2017). Effects of 12 weeks of circuit training on body composition and surrogate indices of major lifestyle disease in sarcopenia elderly women. Korean Journal of Sports Science, 26, 1113–1124.
[ 20 ]
So, Y.-S. (2016). The effect of combined exercise on body composition, functional fitness and muscle protein synthesis related hormone in sarcopenic obesity elderly women. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 7 (3), 185–193. doi: 10.15207/JKCS.2016.7.3.185.
[ 21 ]
Seok, J. E., & Jang, E. J. (2016). The effect of social relationship resource by gender on the life satisfaction of elderly living alone. Korean Journal of Gerontological Social Welfare, 71, 321–349.
[ 22 ]
Smith, G. L. Banting, L., Eime, R., O’Sullivan, G., & van Uffelen, J. G. Z. (2017). The association between social support and physical activity in older adults: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14, 56. doi: 10.1186/s12966-017-0509-8.
[ 23 ]
Anderson, E. S., Wojcik, J. R., Winett, R. A., & Williams, D. M. (2006). Social-cognitive determinants of physical activity: The influence of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation among participants in a church-based health promotion study. Health Psychology, 25 (4), 510–520. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.25.4.510.
[ 24 ]
Janssen, I., Heymsfield, S. B., & Ross, R. (2002). Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50 (5), 889–896. doi: 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50216.x.
[ 25 ]
Lim, S., Kim, J. H., Yoon, J. W., Kang, S. M., Choi, S. H., Park, Y. J., Kim, K. W., Lim, J. Y., Park, K. S., & Jang, H. C. (2010). Sarcopenic obesity: Prevalence and association with metabolic syndrome in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). Diabetes Care, 33 (7), 1652–1654. doi: 10.2337/dc10-0107.
[ 26 ]
Choi, H.-A., & Park, K.-M. (2016). Effects of sarcopenic obesity on metabolic syndrome in Korean elders: Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011). Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, 27 (3), 231–241. doi: 10.12799/jkachn.2016.27.3.231.
[ 27 ]
Seo, K. S. (2014). The effects of group motivation counseling on improvement of physical activity in elderly using a welfare center. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Seoul National University, Korea.
[ 28 ]
Lee, P. S., & Chang, S. O. (2001). The study on the effects of stage based exercise motivational intervention program for the elderly. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 31 (5), 818–834.
[ 29 ]
Umstattd, M. R., Motl, R., Wilcox, S., Saunders, R., & Watford, M. (2009). Measuring physical activity self-regulation strategies in older adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 6 (S1), S105–S112. doi: 10.1123/jpah.6.s1.s105.
[ 30 ]
Watanabe, K., Kawakami, N., Adachi, H., Inoue, S., & Meyer, M. R. U. (2017). Internal consistency, convergent validity, and structural validity of the Japanese version of the Physical Activity Self-Regulation scale (PASR-12) among Japanese workers: A validation study. Journal of Occupational Health, 59 (1), 24–32. doi: 10.1539/joh.16-0143-OA.
[ 31 ]
Washburn, R. A., Smith, K. W., Jette, A. M., & Janney, C. A. (1993). The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE): Development and evaluation. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 46 (2), 153–162. doi: 10.1016/0895-4356(93)90053-4.
[ 32 ]
Choe, M.-A., Kim, J. Jeon, M.-Y., & Chae, Y. R. (2010). Evaluation of the Korean version of Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (K-PASE). Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 16, 47–59.
[ 33 ]
Korea Sports Promotion Foundation. (2012). National Physical Fitness Award project. Available online: (accessed 15 September 2019).
[ 34 ]
Choi, K. J, Go, B. G., Song, H. S., Kim, K. J., Park, S. J., Cho, J. H., Yi, K. O., Shin, S., Park, J. H. & Lee, G. S. (2014). The development of physical fitness test battery and evaluation criteria of it for Korean elderly person. The Korean Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Sports Science, 16, 15–30.
[ 35 ]
Park, N. H., Choi, E. O., & Han, C. I. (2007). The effects of a combined exercise program and telephone counselling on physical functions, self-efficacy and depression in obese middle-aged women. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, 18 (1), 69–78.
[ 36 ]
Shahar, S., Kamaruddin, N. S., Badrasawi, M., Sakian, N. I. M., Manaf, Z. A., Yassin, Z., & Joseph, L. (2013). Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 1365–1375. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S46826.
[ 37 ]
Garber, C. E., Blissmer, B., Deschenes, M. R., Franklin, B. A., Lamonte, M. J., Lee, I.-M., Nieman, D. C., Swain, D. P., & American College of Sports Medicine. (2011). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43 (7), 1334–1359. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb.
[ 38 ]
Kim, H., Suzuki, T., Saito, K., Yoshida, H., Kojima, N., Kim, M., Sudo, M., Yamashiro, Y., & Tokimitsu, I. (2013). Effects of exercise and tea catechins on muscle mass, strength and walking ability in community-dwelling elderly Japanese sarcopenic women: A randomized controlled trial. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 13 (2), 458–465. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00923.x.
[ 39 ]
Montero-Fernández, N., & Serra-Rexach, J. A. (2013). Role of exercise on sarcopenia in the elderly. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 49 (1), 131–143.
[ 40 ]
Riemsma, R. P., Taal, E., & Rasker, J. J. (2003). Group education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and their partners. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 49 (4), 556–566. doi: 10.1002/art.11207.
[ 41 ]
Park, S. K., Kim, E. H., Kwon, Y. C., Park, J. K., Kang, S. Y., & Jang, J. H. (2010). Effects of combined exercise program on health-related physical fitness, anti-aging hormone and prevention of sarcopenia in elderly women with sarcopenia. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 40, 435–442.
[ 42 ]
Lee, C. E., McArdle, A., & Griffiths, R. D. (2007). The role of hormones, cytokines and heat shock proteins during age-related muscle loss. Clinical Nutrition, 26 (5), 524–534. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2007.05.005.
[ 43 ]
Cassilhas, R. C., Antunes, H. K. M., Tufik, S., & de Mello, M. T. (2010). Mood, anxiety, and serum IGF-1 in elderly men given 24 weeks of high resistance exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110 (1), 265–276. doi: 10.2466/pms.110.1.265-276.
[ 44 ]
Goodpaster, B. H., Park, S. W., Harris, T. B., Kritchevsky, S. B., Nevitt, M., Schwartz, A. V., Simonsick, E. M., Tylavsky, F. A., Visser, M., & Newman, A. B. (2006). The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 61 (10), 1059–1064. doi: 10.1093/gerona/61.10.1059.
[ 45 ]
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. (2017). Korean National Fitness Assessment. Korea Institute of Sports Science.
[ 46 ]
Han, K., Park, Y.-M., Kwon, H.-S., Ko, S.-H., Lee, S.-H., Yim, H. W., Lee, W.-C., Park, Y. G., Kim, M. K., & Park, Y.-M. (2014). Sarcopenia as a determinant of blood pressure in older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008–2010. PLoS ONE, 9 (1), e86902. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086902.
[ 47 ]
Kim, H. G., & Nam, H. G. (2011). The effect of Thera Band exercise on muscle flexibility, balance ability, muscle strength in elderly women. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, 22 (4), 451–457. doi: 10.12799/jkachn.2011.22.4.451.
[ 48 ]
Zhao, Y., Zhang, Y., Hao, Q., Ge, M., & Dong, B. (2019). Sarcopenia and hospital-related outcomes in the old people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 31 (1), 5–14. doi: 10.1007/s40520-018-0931-z.
[ 49 ]
Zdzieblik D., Oesser, S., Baumstark, M. W., Gollhofer, A., & König, D. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: A randomized controlled trial. The British Journal of Nutrition, 114 (8), 1237–1245. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002810.
Browse journals by subject